This report was produced by CEMR under the direction of Nathalie Noupadja (former Head of Research and Studies) by Gábor Péteri (Consultant). The author would like to thank the CEMR member associations and their partners from Austria (KDZ), Estonia (ELVL), Finland (AFLRA), France (Banque Postale), Portugal (ANMP), Serbia (SKGO) and Turkey (UMT) who reported on financial mechanisms and city cases, as well as Marlon Hilden (CEMR) who contributed to the chapters on capital investments. Their valuable input has been greatly appreciated.

Special thanks go to Alexandra Schantl and Karoline Mitterer from KDZ, Austrian Centre for Public Administration Research, and Elton Stafa from NALAS, the Network of Associations of Local Authorities, for the precious help, input and comments they provided throughout the report’s elaboration. CEMR and the author would also like to give sincere thanks to UCLG, Serge Allou and Paloma Labbé in particular, and the OECD and Isabelle Chatry for their invaluable advice and work on the World Observatory on Subnational Government Finance and Investment, which was a key resource in developing this report.

Finally, we would like to acknowledge and convey our gratitude to Marine Gaudron, Axelle Griffon, Aleksandra Garo, Marlon Hilden and Marlène Siméon from the CEMR Secretariat for their important and constructive comments in producing this report.